The Division’s Office of Fish and Wildlife Health and Forensics is asking those who are out in the fields and woods of New Jersey at this time of year to be alert for deer that may be affected by Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease (EHD) and to report any suspected cases to the Division.
Hemorrhagic Disease (HD) is a common viral disease in deer that is transmitted by biting midges belonging to the genus Culiocoides. Hemorrhagic disease may be caused by one of two closely related viruses, including Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease virus (EHD) or Bluetongue Virus (BT). Hemorrhagic disease (HD) may be caused by one of two closely related viruses, including Epizootic Hemorrhagic Disease virus (EHD) or Bluetongue Virus (BT). Hemorrhagic disease outbreaks in New Jersey typically occur in August through October and end with the first significant frost, which kills the midges. Multiple EHD outbreaks have occurred in various parts of New Jersey since 1955, including in 2020 in the Wallkill Wildlife Refuge, and the first documented case of BT occurred in deer in 2014.
Symptoms of HD in deer may include difficulty standing, drooling, lethargy, respiratory distress, emitting foam from the mouth or nose, and swelling of the face, tongue, and neck. Because the disease causes fever, sick or dead deer are often seen in or near water, after drinking or attempting to cool off. Affected deer may also show reduced activity, loss of appetite, and develop ulcerations on their tongue.
Clinical signs of EHD may be variable depending on the course of the disease, which may be acute or chronic. As the name implies, the virus (BT and EHD) causes damage to the blood vessels causing hemorrhage within the internal organs. Survivors of the infection or chronically infected individuals may become emaciated in the winter and may exhibit cracks in the hooves.
Deer exhibiting any of the above-mentioned signs in late summer and fall, or dead deer observed in or near water should be reported to any one of the following numbers:
Bureau of Wildlife Management:
Division Veterinarian – Dr. Nicole Lewis, 908-735-6398 or firstname.lastname@example.org
Deer Biologist – Jodi Powers, 609-223-6073 or email@example.com
HD is not a public health issue. Neither EHD nor BT viruses can be transmitted to people, and humans are not at risk by handling infected deer, being bitten by infected midges, or eating infected deer meat — though the Division of Fish and Wildlife strongly advises against consuming meat from any game animal that appears ill.
EHD virus rarely infects domestic animals, while BT is a known disease of domestic animals such as sheep, cattle, goats, and even domestic dogs. To date, no cases of livestock illness related to BT have been reported. People suspecting HD in domestic animals should have them tested for the virus.
Additional information may be obtained from the State Veterinarian’s Office at 609-671-6400. The New Jersey Department of Agriculture’s Animal Health Diagnostic Laboratory (AHDL) can assist in diagnosing suspected BT cases by offering testing and necropsy services. The AHDL can be contacted by calling 609-406-6999 or e-mailing firstname.lastname@example.org.